Polyphasic sleep vs monophasic sleep: Is it time to try something new?
How much sleep do youneed each day?
Most experts recommend between seven and nine hours – and that schedule works for the majority of us. We might need to spend some time experimenting with when we go to bed, and when we set our alarm.
The majority of us, however, stick to the standard monophasic sleep routine, although there are other kinds of sleep cycle to consider which you may not be aware of.
Polyphasic sleep and biphasic sleepers can thrive on only 3 hours of sleep a day in some extreme circumstances. These people focus on spending less time in bed, and more time enjoying the waking world.
Even Leonardo Da Vinci was into polyphasic sleep.
The question is, how can you possibly live on less than 5 hours of sleep a day?
Monophasic sleep and the different types of sleep cycle
We all have different sleep needs, affected by things like our genetics, gender, age, and even how we live our lives. The sleeping routines that we fall into are usually dictated by our internal biological clock.
We build circadian rhythms based on what we do during a 24-hour cycle.
Because we’re used to falling asleep at night and working during the day in the western world, the monophasic sleep cycle seems to make the most sense. This involves going to bed at the same time each night and spending up to 9 hours in slumber.
In monophasic sleep, there are no scheduled naps (unless you’re getting older or have a big lunch). Additionally, you generally get quite a lot of sleep — at least compared to those biphasic and polyphasic sleepers we mentioned above.
Though monophasic sleep has become the norm for most of the western world, it’s far from the onlyoption.
Indeed, many experts believe that polyphasic sleep and biphasic sleeping can help us to tap into benefits like improved productivity, and better efficiency in our lives.
There are plenty of people already experimenting with biphasic sleep in the modern world. With these kinds of schedule, you practice sleep for a long duration at night — just like normal.
But, rather than sleeping for between 7 and 9 hours, you only get 4 or 5 hours of sleep. You also get a siesta in the middle of the day that can last up to 90 minutes — the length of a full sleep cycle.
There’s another version of biphasic sleep called segmented sleep, which is when you split your 6 to 8 hours of sleep into two separate sessions. We’ll talk about biphasic sleep in another article.
Today, we’re going to be focusing a far more extreme way to change up your routine with polyphasic rest.
What is polyphasic sleep?
Polyphasic sleep schedules come in many different flavours, according to the Polyphasic Society.
There are even people out there that prefer to make up their own polyphasic routines, rather than following a strategy that’s been pre-set for them.
The main thing that you’ll need to remember about polyphasic sleep, is that it’s all about removing the single “long” phase of sleep from your routine and splitting it down into several chunks.
You might get up to 3 hours of sleep if you go for the everyman sleep cycle, but true polyphasic sleepers tend to avoid staying unconscious for anywhere near that length of time.
Instead, it’s more likely that your longest “core” session of sleep will only last around 90 minutes.
The idea is that by splitting your slumber into several portions will improve your sleep efficiency.
Many polyphasic sleep fans believe that we waste too much time during the night on light sleep that’s not giving us any benefits. Rather, with polyphasic sleep, your body will crave every second of unconsciousness.
You’ll fall asleep faster, and your body will default to stages of sleep like slow-wave and REM, so you get more out of every rest period.
As mentioned above, there are different kinds of polyphasic sleep schedule available, but the most common are usually:
Everyman: A polyphasic sleep schedule that combines a long session of 3 hours of sleep with around 3 twenty minute naps spread throughout the day.
Uberman: A polyphasic sleep cycle that allows for only 3 hours of sleep in total through the day, in the form of six 30-minute naps
Dymaxion: A particularly extreme sleep cycle that provides for only 2 hours of sleep in the day, usually in the form of four 30-minute naps.
Most people start their journey into polyphasic sleep with customised versions of the cycles above.
For instance, you might begin with the Everyman schedule, using 4 hours of sleep for your core period of slumber, rather than just 3.
Is polyphasic sleep the same as fragmented sleep?
At first, polyphasic sleep schedules can sound like a nightmare.
Being forced to live with no sleep each night, and survive on naps alone sounds similar to suffering from an irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder. Polyphasic sleep isn’t the same as fragmented sleep, or any other sleep disorder for that matter.
The difference is that polyphasic practitioners are deliberately restricting their sleep to be as productive as possible.
Saying that, if you suffer from a circadian rhythm disorder that makes it difficult for you to get a lot of deep rest on an evening anyway, then you might find it easier than most to fall into a polyphasic sleep routine.
There are also certain conditions that may mean you’re not suitable to try a polyphasic sleep schedule.
Is monophasic sleep the best option? What science says:
So, should we all stick to monophasic sleep as our only choice for a restful slumber? Or are there people out there who can benefit from polyphasic sleep?
The science on this subject is still mixed.
On the one hand, there’s an article from 2016 that highlights how valuable segmented sleep patterns can be.
This article draws attention to the fact that the modern workday is herding most cultures towards monophasic sleep schedules.
However, polyphasic options could be better for people who don’t lead a normal routine. For instance, they might be ideal for shift-workers or freelancers.
If we go back even further into the science of sleep, we find that the benefits of brief naps are pretty significant too. These naps can increase cognitive function and help you to focus better at work.
However, that doesn’t mean that we can all cope with living on naps alone.
Winston Churchill also had interesting sleeping hours.
He used to stay up late most nights and wake up at around 8am to start his routine.
He would also take an hour or two of napping into account during his routine, allowing him to get about 5 hours of sleep in total each day.
Clearly, we all have our different requirements and demands when it comes to sleeping.
If you’re interested in changing up your sleep routine, we’d recommend taking it slow to begin with.
Speak to your doctor to find out if they have any arguments why you shouldn’t try polyphasic sleep first. Then, when you’re ready start, try exploring biphasic sleep rather than jumping into getting rid of your long sleep phases straight away.
As you begin to feel more comfortable surviving on less sleep, you can experiment with more significant forms of polyphasic sleep.